Gas station – (GS), facility in a gas field where fluid recovered form wells (mixture of natural gas, gas condensate and water) is separated into natural gas, gas condensate and water; the produced volumes are then measured and delivered for further technological processing; natural gas is separated form damp (dehydrated) and can immediately be delivered for consumption, if it is of an acceptable structure (quality).
Gas condensate – liquid hydrocarbons in a natural gas mixture; they are separated from the natural gas mixture under surface conditions as gasoline (gas condensate consisting of pentane, C5H12 up to decane, C10H22) and gas condensate in a wider sense, made of liquid hydrocarbons from C5 to as high as C35 hydrocarbon atoms; by processing gas condensate, a higher quantity of high-value products is generated (such as liquefied petroleum gases, virgin naphtha, other petrols, light fuel oils) than by refining crude oil.
Gas chromatograph (GC) – an analytical technique through which specific components are separated from complex mixtures such as hydrocarbons. The separated components are detected by a flame ionisation detector or a detector which is based on thermic conductance, and the graphical record is a gas chromatogram.
Gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer (GC-MS) – an analytical technique that is a connected system of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatograph separates organic components, and the mass spectrometer detects information regarding the structure of existing hydrocarbons. The instrument has a special importance in the detection and analysis of biological markers.
Gas-lift – lifting column of oil/petroleum in a well using compressed natural gas when oil/petroleum can no longer be lifted to the surface by the reservoir energy.
Gas field – wells and discovered reservoirs of natural gas; when reservoirs are brought into production, the gas field also encompasses all above-ground facilities and plants for producing natural gas.
Ground storage of gas – subareal geological structures of free volume in rocks (depleted gas and oil/petroleum reservoirs, natural caverns, salt mines, etc.) where large volumes of gas can be stored; through the injection-production well, natural gas is injected with compressors when consumption is low (in summer) and through these same wells stored natural gas is produced when consumption is high (in winter); GSG also includes plants for injection (compression station ) and plants for the production and delivery of natural gas (gas station).
Gas-lift –- lifting column of oil/petroleum in a well using compressed natural gas when oil/petroleum can no longer be lifted to the surface by the reservoir energy.
Gasoline hydrocarbons – Fraction of petroleum or condensate with a boiling point between 15 and 2000C, consisting of low-molecular hydro carbonic components containing less then 12 atoms of carbon.
Geophysical methods – methods of applied geophysics for measuring the geological characteristics of the underground for the purpose of discovering new possible reservoirs of the raw material: gravimetrics, magneto-metrics, seismics, electro-logging etc.
Geophysics – science which observes the physical characteristics of the Earth (temperature, magnetism, gravity, radioactivity, electrical resistance of rocks, etc.); combination of physics and geology.
Geology – science of the genesis, structure and development of the Earth as a whole, especially the Earth’s crust (lithosphere).
Geological trap – geological object under ground, reservoir of certain raw material, isolated from the environment by impermeable deposits; characteristic of reservoirs of petroleum and natural gas.
Greenhouse effect – due to pollution by harmful gases (greenhouse gases), the atmosphere has become more permeable to the sun's rays (solar radiation and ultra-violet radiation), while at the same time it cools with more difficultly because it is permeable to heat (infrared) radiation into space; the result is generally warmer weather on Earth.
Greenhouse gases – gases which pollute the atmosphere: vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxides (NOx), etc.; gases which damage the ozone layer: fluorine-hydrocarbons (HFC), perfluorine carbons (PFC), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), etc.; they cause long-term warming of the atmosphere and the Earth.