Parent rock – paurograined sediment, rich with organic matter, in a natural habitat generates substantial quantities of hydrocarbons for inducing economic accumulations.
Pentane – liquid hydrocarbon (C5H12), an ingredient of natural gas and light petrol. Used as feedstock in the petrochemical industry.
Petroleum field – wells and discovered reservoirs of petroleum; when reservoirs are brought into production, the petroleum field also encompasses all above-ground facilities and plants for the production of petroleum and gas.
Petroleum-gas field – wells and discovered individual reservoirs of petroleum or natural gas; when brought into production, the petroleum-gas field also encompasses all above-ground facilities and plants for the production of petroleum and gas.
Petroleum/oil – (gr. naphtha – earth/rock oil), liquid mixture of hydrocarbons of mineral origin; mineral raw material of highest importance in terms of energy; recovered from underground by mining-petroleum activities, that is, by drilling and production through wells; refined into petroleum products in refineries.
Petroleum products – products resulting from crude oil refining.
Petroleum window – a depth-temperature interval in which the parent rock generates the biggest portion of petroleum hydrocarbons. Petroleum windows occur in temperature areas between 60 and 160 0C, that is, in catagenesis.
Petrols – crude oil products, separated at processing temperatures of 70 – 185 oC; raw material for further refining and chemical processing. After further processing, it produces motor fuels, fuels for internal combustion engines. It is also used in the petrochemical industry as straight run petrol or virgin naphtha.
Pyrolysis – process of decomposition and cracking of organic matter and production of smaller organic molecules under higher temperature without oxygen. Rock Eval pyrolysis apparatus and hydrolytic pyrolysis are laboratory pyrolytic techniques which are applied for determining parent rocks.
Pissasphalt – old name for accumulations of oil/petroleum (bitumen, asphalt) as natural surface sources.
Polymers – macromolecules consisting of a large number of small sub-units, monomers. Biopolymers and geopolymers can be found in nature. Proteins and polysaccharides of normal structure fall under biopolymers, while geopolymers are of incorrect structure and consist of a large number of different sub-units.
Primary energy – natural forms of energy: wood, coal, oil/petroleum, natural gas, water power and nuclear fuel; coal, oil/petroleum and natural gas are fossil fuels; renewable sources are wood and water power, while the rest are non-renewable; wood as heating wood, coal and natural gas can be used directly while the rest must be transformed into useful forms of energy (oil/petroleum products, electrical power, etc.).
Primary refining – the refining of crude oil in refineries only by simple distillation (atmospheric distillation); only basic oil/petroleum products (fractions) are produced, which become commercial products after further refining.
Primary production – recovery (production) of oil/petroleum and natural gas from reservoirs using the energy of the reservoir and additional mechanical lifting (gas lifting, lifting subsurface pump).
Preparation/treatment of oil/petroleum for transport – the technological operation of producing oil/petroleum on oil/petroleum fields; natural gas, water and solid contaminants are separated from the mixture of oil/petroleum, natural gas and water, and oil/petroleum is delivered for refining in refineries.
Production/output well – well equipped for production of oil/petroleum and gas; active well through which oil/petroleum and natural gas are recovered from the reservoir.
Production string – (flow string/tubing) a chain of steel casing pipes built in a well to the depth of the discovered oil/petroleum or natural gas reservoir.
Production field – (exploitation field), wells, oil/petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, as well as above-ground facilities and plants for the production of oil/petroleum and gas.
Production of oil and gas – a technological process which includes: recovery of oil/petroleum and natural gas from wells, transport via pipelines to the facility for oil/petroleum and gas refining, storage and delivery of oil/petroleum, natural gas and gas condensate for further processing or consumption.
Propane – gaseous hydrocarbon (C3H8), an ingredient of natural gas and refinery gases; produced by processing natural gas and crude oil; when liquefied under pressure, mostly used as an energy source, usually in a mixture of propane/butane (LPG).