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Discovered reserves

total determined quantity of petroleum and natural gas in discovered reservoirs, regardless whether it can be technically and cost-effectively drilled.

Launching trap

facility in a petroleum field where petroleum is delivered through oil/petroleum pipelines from other production facilities of one or more petroleum fields, where water is separated (oil dehydration), where oil is stored in reservoirs and delivered by pumps and oil/petroleum pipeline for refining.

Octane number

measure of the anti-detonator characteristics and quality of petrol; the aim is for the air-fuel mixture not to ignite before it is ignited under control by the electrical spark of the spark-plug in the engine; the detonator characteristics of the tested petrol are compared to a mixture of n-heptane (which detonates easily) and iso-octane (which does not detonate); when petrol burns satisfactorily in mixture with air and behaves as a mixture of 5% n-heptane and 95% iso-octane, is has octane number 95.

Organic theory

a theory of the genesis of petroleum that is based on the transformation of organic matter from extinct organisms, deposited on the bottom of a sea or lake, into petroleum through the mediation of high temperatures and pressures.

Organic matter (biomass)

biogenic material resulting from biological processes and containing one or more carbon atoms. Kerogen, bitumen, petroleum and gas are organic materials preserved in rocks.

Organic compounds

chemical compounds which contain carbon and hydrogen.


ethers that contain oxygen and have a high octane number. Oxygenates usually used for production of motor fuels are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (<strong>MTBE</strong>), tertiary-amyl-ether ether (<strong>TAME</strong>), ethyl tertiary butyl ether  (<strong>ETBE</strong>) and diisopropyl ether (<strong>DIPE</strong>).


the<strong> </strong>technological process where harmful and non-useful admixtures are separated from useful mineral raw material; where production of petroleum and gas are concerned, refinement is: separation of natural gas from petroleum, gas condensate from natural gas, water from petroleum and natural gas, cleaning petroleum to eliminate solid particles, separation of harmful admixtures from natural gas (carbon-dioxide, hydrogen-sulphide, mercury, etc.), dividing natural gas into ingredients (methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane), etc.


designation/marking of gas intended for consumption; has intensive smell due to blending of chemical matters for the purpose of spotting possible leakage on the device or installation into the atmosphere.


exploration and production of petroleum (oil) and gas from the sea.