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gaseous hydrocarbon (<strong>C<sub>3</sub>H<sub>8</sub></strong>), an ingredient of natural gas and refinery gases; produced by processing natural gas and crude oil; when liquefied under pressure, mostly used as an energy source, usually in a mixture of propane/butane (LPG).

Production string

(flow string/tubing) a chain of steel casing pipes built in a well to the depth of the discovered oil/petroleum or natural gas reservoir.

Production field

(exploitation field), wells, oil/petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, as well as above-ground facilities and plants for the production of oil/petroleum and gas.

Production of oil and gas

a technological process which includes: recovery of oil/petroleum and natural gas from wells, transport via pipelines to the facility for oil/petroleum and gas refining, storage and delivery of oil/petroleum, natural gas and gas condensate for further processing or consumption.

Virgin naphtha

hydrocarbons with start and end of distillation at 70–180 <sup>o</sup>C; raw material for the production of motor fuels; valuable raw material for the petrochemical industry.

Treatment of natural gas for transport

the technological operation of producing natural gas on oil/petroleum and gas fields; water, gas condensate, harmful admixtures in the natural gas and damp are separated from the mixture of natural gas, gas condensate and water, and the natural gas is delivered for further treatment (degassing), storage or directly for consumption.

Recoverable reserves

the<strong> </strong>quantity of discovered mineral raw material (oil/petroleum and natural gas) whose extraction is technically possible.

Recovery (production) of oil/petroleum and gas

extraction of oil/petroleum and natural gas (as well as gas condensate and associated water) from a reservoir through a well to the wellhead on the surface.

Natural gas

(methane), a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, primarily methane (<strong>CH<sub>4</sub></strong>) and others, up to pentane (<strong>C<sub>5</sub>H<sub>12</sub></strong>); of mineral origin; produced from the underground by drilling and recovery through wells from reservoirs of free gas or together with oil/petroleum from oil/petroleum reservoirs; a very important raw material where energy is concerned; an ecologically acceptable energy source.

Oil/petroleum flow pipeline

a steel pipeline below ground from an oil/petroleum well to an oil/petroleum metering station.

Preparation/treatment of oil/petroleum for transport

the technological operation of producing oil/petroleum on oil/petroleum fields; natural gas, water and solid contaminants are separated from the mixture of oil/petroleum, natural gas and water, and oil/petroleum is delivered for refining in refineries.

Production/output well

well equipped for production of oil/petroleum and gas; active well through which oil/petroleum and natural gas are recovered from the reservoir.

Primary energy

natural forms of energy: wood, coal, oil/petroleum, natural gas, water power and nuclear fuel; coal, oil/petroleum and natural gas are fossil fuels; renewable sources are wood and water power, while the rest are non-renewable; wood as heating wood, coal and natural gas can be used directly while the rest must be transformed into useful forms of energy (oil/petroleum products, electrical power, etc.).

Primary refining

the refining of crude oil in refineries only by simple distillation (atmospheric distillation); only basic oil/petroleum products (fractions) are produced, which become commercial products after further refining.

Primary production

recovery (production) of oil/petroleum and natural gas from reservoirs using the energy of the reservoir and additional mechanical lifting (gas lifting, lifting subsurface pump).


macromolecules consisting of a large number of small sub-units, monomers. Biopolymers and geopolymers can be found in nature. Proteins and polysaccharides of normal structure fall under biopolymers, while geopolymers are of incorrect structure and consist of a large number of different sub-units.

Gas station

(GS), facility in a gas field where fluid recovered form wells (mixture of natural gas, gas condensate and water) is separated into natural gas, gas condensate and water; the produced volumes are then measured and delivered for further technological processing; natural gas is separated form damp (dehydrated) and can immediately be delivered for consumption, if it is of an acceptable structure (quality).


process of decomposition and cracking of organic matter and production of smaller organic molecules under higher temperature without oxygen. Rock Eval pyrolysis apparatus and hydrolytic pyrolysis are laboratory pyrolytic techniques which are applied for determining parent rocks.


liquid hydrocarbon (<strong>C<sub>5</sub>H<sub>12</sub></strong>), an ingredient of natural gas and light petrol. Used as feedstock in the petrochemical industry.

Lamp oil

(<em>Greek</em>: petroleum, stone oil), term for all hydrocarbons; oil/petroleum product with start and end of distillation at 180–240 <sup>o</sup>C, used for lighting, heating or for powering some internal combustion engines.


old name for accumulations of oil/petroleum (bitumen, asphalt) as natural surface sources.

Ground storage of gas

subareal geological structures of free volume in rocks (depleted gas and oil/petroleum reservoirs, natural caverns, salt mines, etc.) where large volumes of gas can be stored; through the injection-production well, natural gas is injected with compressors when consumption is low (in summer) and through these same wells stored natural gas is produced when consumption is high (in winter); GSG also includes plants for injection (compression station ) and plants for the production and delivery of natural gas (gas station).

Gas field

wells and discovered reservoirs of natural gas; when reservoirs are brought into production, the gas field also encompasses all above-ground facilities and plants for producing natural gas.

Gas chromatograph

mass spectrometer (GC-MS)– an<strong> </strong>analytical technique that is a connected system of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatograph separates organic components, and the mass spectrometer detects information regarding the structure of existing hydrocarbons. The instrument has a special importance in the detection and analysis of biological markers.

Gas condensate

liquid hydrocarbons in a natural gas mixture; they are separated from the natural gas mixture under surface conditions as gasoline (gas condensate consisting of pentane, C5H12 up to decane, C10H22) and gas condensate in a wider sense, made of liquid hydrocarbons from C5 to as high as C35 hydrocarbon atoms; by processing gas condensate, a higher quantity of high-value products is generated (such as liquefied petroleum gases, virgin naphtha, other petrols, light fuel oils) than by refining crude oil.